Friday, September 12, 2014

European Clan Mothers

Many people know that I am a daughter of Clan Ursula (belonging to genetic maternal haplogroup U5b). The oldest extant European-specific motherline among modern humans, mtHg U is one of 7 European genetic maternal lines. If your motherline is of European descent, you belong to one of these 7 primary maternal haplogroups. Here is a short summary of the 7 European genetic maternal lines (sources - Wiki and The Seven Daughters of Eve):

Clan Ursula (mtHg U) - "Haplogroup U is found in 15% of Indian caste and 8% of Indian tribal populations. Haplogroup U is found in approximately 11% of native Europeans and is held as the oldest maternal haplogroup found in that region. A 2013 study confirmed previous findings that haplogroup U was the dominant type of Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Europe before the spread of agriculture into Europe. The age of U5 is estimated at 30-50,000 years. Approximately 11% of total Europeans and 10% of European-Americans are in haplogroup U5. In 'The Seven Daughters of Eve', this haplogroup, as well as Haplogroup U in general, is labelled 'Clan Ursula'. Sub-haplogroup U5 is believed to be the oldest single branch of Haplogroup U, hence the sharing of the 'Ursula' designation by both groups. Because of that, it is widely believed that it was this branch who then interbred with another ancient European race, the Neanderthals themselves. U5 has been found in human remains dating from the Mesolithic in England, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, France and Spain. Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b form the highest population concentrations in the far north, in Sami, Finns, and Estonians, but it is spread widely at lower levels throughout Europe. This distribution, and the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals from this haplogroup were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe around 10.000 years ago." This haplogroup is indigenous to Europe.

Clan Xenia (mtHg X) - "In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup found in Native Americans, Europeans, and Western Asians. Haplogroup X is found in approximately 7% of native Europeans, and 3% of all Native Americans from North America. Overall haplogroup X accounts for about 2% of the population of Europe, the Near East, and North Africa. Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal around or soon after the last glacial maximum, about 21,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe; and somewhat less strongly present in the rest of Europe. Particular concentrations appear in Georgia (8%), the Orkney Islands (in Scotland) (7%), and amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%). Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North America, but are not present in native South Americans. Haplogroup X is also one of the five haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas."

Clan Helena (mtHg H) - "In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup H is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup that likely originated in Southwest Asia 20,000-25,000 YBP. Haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA haplogroup in Europe. Haplogroup H is found in approximately 41% of native Europeans. The haplogroup is also common in North Africa and the Middle East. The majority of the European populations have an overall haplogroup H frequency of 40%–50%. Frequencies decrease in the southeast of the continent, reaching 20% in the Near East and Caucasus, 17% in Iran, and Central Asia. Among all these clades, the subhaplogroups H1 and H3 have been subject to a more detailed study and would be associated to the Magdalenian expansion from SW Europe c. 13,000 years ago. Several independent studies conclude that haplogroup H probably evolved in West Asia c. 25,000 years ago. It was carried to Europe by migrations c. 20-25,000 years ago, and spread with population of the southwest of the continent. Its arrival was roughly contemporary with the rise of the Gravettian culture." This haplogroup is the most common haplogroup found among European-descendents today and is indigenous to West or Southwest Asia.

Clan Velda (mtHg V) - "Haplogroup V originated in the Near East. Haplogroup V is a relatively rare mtDNA haplogroup found in approximately 4% of native Europeans. Its highest concentration is among the Saami people of northern Scandinavia (approximately 59%), where its divergence time is estimated at 7600 YBP (years before present). It has been found at approximately 10% among the Maris of the Volga-Ural region, leading to the suggestion that this region might be the source of the V among the Saami. Haplogroup V is also found at higher than average levels in Cantabrian people (15%) of northern Iberia, and somewhat lower in nearby Basque people (10.4%). It also is found in particularly high concentrations (16.3%) among the Berbers of Matmata, Tunisia." This haplogroup is indigenous to the Near East.

Clan Tara (mtHg T) - "In human genetics, Haplogroup T is a predominately Eurasian lineage. Haplogroup T is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans. Haplogroup T is currently found with high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea. The geographic distribution within subclade T2 varies greatly with the ratio of subhaplogroup T2e to T2b reported to vary 40-fold across examined populations from a low in Britain and Ireland, to a high in Saudi Arabia. Within subhaplogroup T2e, a very rare motif is identified among Sephardic Jews of Turkey and Bulgaria and suspected conversos from the New World (Bedford 2012). Haplogroup T is also found in a Svan population from Caucasus (Georgia). Haplogroup T is uncommon in Africa and is absent from most populations there. Its highest frequencies are in two Semitic speaking peoples: the Amhara and the Tigrai." This haplogroup is indigenous to Eurasia.

Clan Katrine (mtHg K) - Haplogroup K has an estimated age of c. 12,000 years BP and appears in West Eurasia, North Africa, and South Asia and in populations with such an ancestry. Haplogroup K is found in approximately 10% of native Europeans. Overall mtDNA Haplogroup K is found in about 6% of the population of Europe and the Near East, but it is more common in certain of these populations. Approximately 16% of the Druze of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, belong to haplogroup K. It was also found in a significant group of Palestinian Arabs. K reaches a level of 17% in Kurdistan. Approximately 32% of people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are in haplogroup K. The average of European K frequency is 5.6%. K appears to be highest in the Morbihan (17.5%) and PĂ©rigord-Limousin (15.3%) regions of France, and in Norway and Bulgaria (13.3%). The level is 12.5% in Belgium, 11% in Georgia and 10% in Austria and Great Britain. Haplogroup K has also been found in skeletons of early farmers in Central Europe of around 5500-5300 BC. It has long been known that some techniques of farming, together with associated plant and animal breeds, spread into Europe from the Near East." This haplogroup is indigenous to the Near East.

Clan Jasmine (mtHg J) -"Haplogroup J colonised Europe from the Near East in the late Paleolithic & Mesolithic. Haplogroup J is found in approximately 12% of native Europeans. Average frequency of J Haplogroup as a whole is highest in the Near East (12%) followed by Europe (11%), Caucasus (8%) and North Africa (6%). Of the two main sub-groups, J1 takes up four-fifths of the total and is spread on the continent while J2 is more localised around the Mediterranean, Greece, Italy/Sardinia and Spain. There is a high (19%) incidence of J1 haplogroup among the Polish Roma ethnic group which is ascribed to the founder effect. Within Europe, J is found in Ireland, England-Wales, Scotland, germany, Russia, Iceland, Austria-Switzerland, Finland-Estonia, Spain-Portugal, and France-Italy." This haplogrop is indigenous to the Near East.

So, there you have it - the seven primary ancestral Clan Mothers of people of modern European descent.

Dare to be true to yourself.