Here are the defining mutations of mtDNA haplogroup U5b. This haplogroup is the foundation of Saami major motherline 1. My hapolgroup U5b1b1 is a haplgroup found among both the Saami of Scandinavia (48%) and the Berbers of North Africa (2%). Some (but not all) of the Saami also carry a mutation at np 16144, which defines a daughter haplgroup of U5b1b1, namely U5b1b1a. I don't carry this extra mutation, which may have occurred around 8000-9000 YBP. I do carry extra mutations at 12366 and 13911 "which are so far unique in U5b1b1 and could eventually define a
new branch in U5b1b1" [quoting FTDNA scientist] similarly to the way U5b1b1a does among the Saami today.