Friday, July 27, 2012

Complete Fiascos in the North for the Persians & Romans

The Persian Fiasco with Northmen

The Cadusii seem to have had continual troubles with the Achaemenid central government: We know of a revolt about 405 b.c., around the end of Darius II’s reign, which lasted until Cyrus’ rebellion (though at Cunaxa, in 401, they fought on the king’s side under a certain Artagerses; cf. Plutarch, Artoxerxes 9.1), and of several others. In particular there is evidence of an expedition against the Cadusii by Artaxerxes II during the great satrapal revolts around 380 b.c.; this expedition was a complete fiasco, and only diplomatic negotiations by the satrap Tiribazus made a retreat possible, with the king himself marching on foot (Diodorus, 15.8.5; 10.1; Plutarch, Artoxerxes 24-25; etc.).

The Roman Fiasco with Northmen

Forty years after the Emperor Claudius conquered southern Britain in 43 CE, the Roman governor, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, led a force of 20,000 troops northwards into the country known by the Romans as Caledonia (Scotland). Unlike the rest of Britain, Scotland was never considered part of the Roman Empire. The Roman armies invaded Scotland several times and even defeated the northern tribes a few times, but they never controlled Scotland. Defending their Empire - To control their newly won territory in England, the Romans built heavily defended forts around the country. Most famous of all, on the northern edge of their British territory, the Romans built a coast-to-coast wall to protect Roman England from the tribes who lived in Scotland. Hadrian's Wall was built so well, that you can still go and see parts of it today, nearly 2000 years after it was made.

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