Saturday, April 28, 2012

U5b 101: Basic Fact Findings

Before I go any further, I thought it a worthwhile endeavor to bring together into a post the basic facts concerning my mtDNA haplogroup (U5) and clade (U5b). This will help me when it comes to interpreting new relevant scientific results as they are published.

Source Wiki

Branch U5 of U is extremely old, and among the oldest mtDNA haplogroups found in European remains of Homo sapiens is U5. For example, Cheddar Man, the oldest remains of anatomically modern humans in Britain, was in Haplogroup U5. The age of U5 is estimated at 30-50,000 years but could be as old as 60,500 years. Approximately 11% of total Europeans and 10% of European-Americans are in haplogroup U5. The presence of haplogroup U5 in Europe predates the end of the Ice Ages as well as the expansion of agriculture in Europe. U5 has been found in human remains dating from the Mesolithic in England, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, and France. Haplogroup U5 and its subclades U5a and U5b form the highest population concentrations in the far north, in Sami, Finns, and Estonians, but it is spread widely at lower levels throughout Europe. This distribution, and the age of the haplogroup, indicate individuals from this haplogroup were part of the initial expansion tracking the retreat of ice sheets from Europe ~10kya. Haplogroup U5 is found also in small frequencies and at much lower diversity in the Near East and parts of northern Africa (areas with sizable U6 concentrations), suggesting back-migration of people from Europe to the south. U5b is about 24000 years old.

U5b arose around 24000 years ago and has polymorphisms in 150 7768 14182( + U5 polymorphisms).
 ---U5b1 arose around 18000 years ago and has polymorphisms in 5656( + U5b polymorphisms).
------U5b1a has polymorphisms in 5656 15097, 16189 and has lost its polymorphism in 7028 (backmutation)( + U5b1 polymorphisms).
------U5b1b: has been found in Fulbe and Papel people in Guinea-Bissau and Yakuts people of northeastern Siberia. [17][18] It arose around 11000 years ago and has polymorphisms in 12618 16189 ( + U5b1 polymorphisms).
------U5b1c has polymorphisms in 5656 15191, 16189, 16311 + U5b1 polymorphisms) and arose about 13000 years ago.
------U5b1d has polymorphisms in 5437 5656 and has lost its polymorphism in 16192 (backmutation)( + U5b1 polymorphisms).
------U5b1e has polymorphisms in 152 2757 10283 12616 16189 and has lost its polymorphism in 16192 (backmutation)( + U5b1 polymorphisms) and arose about 6600 years ago.U5b1e is mainly seen in central Europe among Czechs, Slovaks, Hungarians and southern Russians.
------U5b1g has polymorphisms in 151 228 573.1C 5656 10654 13759 14577 ( + U5b1 polymorphisms).
---U5b2 arose around 24000 years ago and has polymorphisms in 1721 13637( + U5b polymorphisms).
---U5b3: The subclade is found primary on the island of Sardinia.

Ancient U5 / U5b and Associated Cultures:

Middle/Upper Paleolithic DNA 
[Countries sampled : Russia, Germany, Spain, Italy]
*Magdalenian Culture (17,000 to 9,000 ybp ; Western Europe); U5

Mesolithic DNA 
[Countries sampled : Russia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Sweden, Luxembourg, England, Spain, Portugal]
*Tardenoisian, Azilian and related cultures (11,500 to 7,500 ybp; West & Southwest Europe); U5, U5b1c2, U5a and U5b1
*Maglemosian-Kongemose, Kunda-Narva, Neman-Zedmar and related cultures (11,500 to 5,000 ybp; North and Northeast Europe); U5b2, U5b1
*Pitted Ware Culture (5,200 to 4,000 ybp; Scandinavia); U5

Neolithic and Chalcolithic DNA 
[Countries sampled : Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary, France, Spain]
*Cardium Pottery Culture (c. 8,400 to 4,700 ybp; Mediterranean Europe); U5b1c, U5
*Atlantic Megalithic Culture (c. 7,000 to 4,000 ybp; Western Europe); U5b, U5
*Funnelbeaker Culture (c. 6,000 to 4,700 ybp; Northern Europe); U5

Bronze Age DNA 
[Countries sampled : Denmark, Germany, Spain, Greece]
*Corded Ware (Battle-axe) Culture (c. 4,900 to 4,300 ybp; North and Northeast Europe); U5b
*Western European Bronze Age (c. 4,500 to 2,800 ybp; Western Europe); U, U5
*Urnfield Culture (c. 3,300 to 2,750 ybp; Central Europe); U5b

Iron Age DNA
[Countries sampled : Denmark, Spain, Italy]
*Scandinavian Iron Age (2,500 to 1,200 ybp); U5b
*Iberian civilisation (3,100 to 2,200 ybp, eastern Spain); U5

1 comment:

Heid said...

Dare to be true to yourself.